The cultural history of Romania is often referred to when dealing with influential artists, musicians, inventors, and sportspeople.
is also notable for including the first documented occurrence of the country's name: Wallachia is mentioned as Țeara Rumânească (old spelling for "The Romanian Land"; țeara from the Latin terra, "land"; current spelling: Țara Românească).
By 1541, the entire Balkan peninsula and most of Hungary had been conquered and integrated into the Ottoman Empire.
By contrast, Moldavia, Wallachia, and Transylvania, while under Ottoman suzerainty, preserved partial or full internal autonomy until the mid-19th century (Transylvania until 1711).
Its capital and largest city, Bucharest, is the sixth-largest city in the EU, with 1,883,425 inhabitants as of 2011.
Romania lost several territories, of which Northern Transylvania was regained after the war.
Roman incursions under Emperor Trajan between 101–102 AD and 105–106 AD resulted in half of the Dacian kingdom becoming a province of the Roman Empire called "Dacia Felix". During this period the province was fully integrated into the Roman Empire, and a sizeable part of the population were newcomers from other provinces.